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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce pain and inflammation. Damage to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains the most common serious adverse event (AE) related to NSAID use; however, small bowel and colonic injury also have clinical consequences. Cardiovascular (CV)-related AEs of these drugs have further complicated an approach to optimize clinical outcomes.1 Clinicians must estimate […]

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. My general approach is to identify the predominant or most bothersome symptoms and the most likely pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Then I target treatment toward these predominant symptoms and mechanisms. Validating symptoms, building […]